EFT Tapping and the Central Nervous System

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Exciting EFT research has been conducted on heart rate variability and heart coherence, the circulatory system using resting pulse rate and blood pressure, the endocrine system using cortisol, and the immune system using salivary immunoglobulin A.

All of this added up to being one extensive measurement of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS controls most functions of the body and mind and consists of two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. So basically this study was looking at the impact of EFT on all of this. The study also looked at changes in the psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD, pain, cravings, and happiness.

The 31 participants were attending a five-day workshop and being taught 16 modules of EFT in a group, with 12 hours of practice. All of those measurements mentioned were taken at the start and end of the workshop, and the participants reported reductions in these areas:

  • Anxiety (39%)
  • Depression (46%)
  • PTSD (32%)
  • Pain (66%)
  • Food cravings (80%)

They also reported their happiness increased (by 13%) as did their immune system (by 61%). They also had significant improvements in their resting heart rate (by 8%), their stress hormone cortisol levels (by 49%), their systolic blood pressure (by 6%), and diastolic blood pressure (by 11%. Systolic blood pressure refers to the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is pumping; diastolic pressure is the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is resting between beats.

These were some impressive gains over the five days. A downward trend was observed for heart rate variability, along with an upward trend for heart coherence, suggesting an improvement in cardiovascular health and function. Although the trend was not statistically significant, the authors determined that an additional 13 participants would have impacted the statistical significance of those measurements. What was exciting was that 60 days later when the researchers followed up with the attendees, everyone indicated they had maintained the gains in their psychological symptom improvements.

Reference:

Bach, D., Groesbeck, G., Stapleton, P., Sims, R., Blickheuser, K., & Church, D. (2019). Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) Improves Multiple Physiological Markers of Health. Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, 24. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515690X18823691

Food to Change your Mood

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Have you ever used food to (try) and change your mood state? You would not be alone!

Even our research examining food diaries of women in our clinical trials indicated most of them used food for many other reasons other than hunger! Full study here.

Sometimes we learn these messages (to soothe with food) from well meaning parents and caregivers, who just want to express love – but inadvertently do this with food.  And associations set in young childhood when we are in theta and delta brain wave states that allow us to be very open to messages we learn, become patterns in adulthood.

Whatever the reason – you can still change these associations – no matter what age.

We have explored this in many clinical trials examining EFT Tapping for food cravings and weight loss – here are the ideas that come from those groups – see which ones ring a bell or remind you of your own experiences. Then you can tap.

Setup Statements:

• Even though my mother let me eat more biscuits/ lollies/chocolate/junk food whenever I cried, I choose to love and accept myself

• Even though my grandmother always overfed me to keep me quiet when I visited her, I choose to completely love and accept myself anyway

• Even though my mother gave me ice-cream to distract me from feeling sad and disappointed when my friends wouldn’t let me play, I  accept myself

• Even though my dad started to buy me chips to make me feel better when I was disappointed about losing the football match, I deeply and completely accept myself

• Even though I was fed …… to make me feel better when I was sick with…………., I deeply and completely accept myself

Reminder Phrases:

• ………. (whatever food) when I cried

• Chocolate (whatever food) made me feel better

• Grandma and food

• Overfed to keep quiet

• Eat and be quiet

• Ice-cream (whatever food) to avoid disappointment

• Eat to avoid the feeling

• Ice-cream (whatever food) for comfort

• Chips (whatever food) to handle disappointment

• Chips (whatever food) for comfort

• Chips (whatever food) and my dad

• Food to feel better

• Fed to combat sickness

The idea is to find what happened to make food a soother in your life, and usually it would have been set up in your earlier life. If there was a specific trauma/memory associated with it, remember to reach out for a professional to guide you through it using EFT or Matrix Reimprinting. Our page has people in Australia or email for an international recommendation.

The most common thing people said at the end of an EFT Trial for Food Cravings was – “I thought it was about the food, and it wasn’t”.

Positive Tapping: The Choices Method Part II

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In a previous blog I explored The Choices Method by Dr. Patricia Carrington, EFT Master. Here is an excerpt from EFT for Teens where Pat explores using it for a client with depression and marriage issues.

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I’ve found that the Choices Method can assist a client to consolidate and make permanent the beneficial changes brought about by EFT, thus helping these EFT-created changes to generalize to many aspects of the person’s life. When that happens, we see true transformation.

“Tara” came into therapy for help with intermittent depression and marital problems. She is an accomplished singer who grew up in a world of theater people. Her mother played a regular bit part on a TV series, her father was a well-known TV director. Their friends were all show biz people.

An only child, Tara recalls that she was always dressed up in “adorable” clothes with an ever-different colored bow in her soft blonde curls. She would often recite Longfellow poems and do a little tap dance at age 3 to excited rounds of applause from their guests, which of course was the highest form of compliment from show people.

At superficial glance one might conclude that she was “over-valued” since her every move was subjected to exaggerated attention (either praise or criticism), and her mother professed incredible pride and seemed to glory in her daughter’s achievements, never missing a detail of one of her recitals. In fact, the mother seemed almost to have lived vicariously through her daughter, enjoying a triumph that she had never achieved in her own modest career.

When Tara came into therapy she acted as though she had “no identity” of her own, and this became a main focus for her treatment. In her year and a half of therapy we have made heavy use of EFT, with many sessions of tapping on her original family situation, on her fear of being more successful than her pretty actress mother, on her fear of failing to please her “highly directive” director father, and on the depression she feels today when she isn’t getting what she considers enough attention (no applause in other words) from others.

During this time, Tara has changed remarkably. She now walks with dignity where before she seemed to flutter into a room. She now speaks more slowly and with a new sincerity and directness that make her come across as a “real person” to others for the first time. Her life in general, and her relationships have become much more real and very much richer.

It often seems as though I am greeting a different person when she walks into the office.

Despite all these gains, however, she still had a residual sadness in her face, the look of a person gazing at some far away painful scene.

When she came for a session recently, her sadness had come to the surface (which was good because now we could deal with it directly), and as we tapped on the sadness, it became evident that it was not due to anything in the present, nor was it about her being forced in childhood to uphold a facade for their guests.

In fact, it was not about attention per se; rather, it was about being in people’s awareness, having them aware of her.

In the middle of this session, Tara’s eyes lowered, and she became silent.

Then she said in a low voice: “It’s not about my worry about pleasing people anymore ” that’s doesn’t bother me the way it did. It’s just that, attention or no attention, and no matter how much she said she loved me, and no matter how much she boasted about me. My mother wasn’t really aware of ME.”

Her eyes welled up with tears as she spoke about this, and she explained that even when she had performed beautifully, and tap-danced and sung and recited the way her parents wanted her to, that she now realized that her mother never really saw the real “her.”

“She saw the little puppet she’d created. She was so proud of that puppet, but she never saw ME,” she said.

Here was a source of some of the deepest sadness within Tara and we were able, gently and with respect for the difficulty it was for her to articulate this, to dissipate this painful memory through quietly tapping on it:

Even though Mommy never really saw me…

Even though Mommy didn’t know I was there…

Even though her eyes didn’t really look at me…

As she tapped away, a quiet came over Tara, a peace I hadn’t seen there before.

There was a new clarity in her eye as she said very slowly, “I never really realized this before. She saw the performer. She loved her. She never saw me…”

She then said that she had a peaceful feeling about this and that it was a tremendous relief to have faced it and been able to tap right on it, not on issues “around it.”

It was clear that this was a turning point for Tara.

I knew how fundamental the session had been and I wanted to help her consolidate her gain, to allow this insight and understanding to become a basis for her life from now on. To help this along, I suggested that we make a few Choices relating to what she had discovered. She was familiar with making Choices since we’d used them a number of times during her therapy. So she worked with me to create several to take home with her.

These choices evolved from a discussion that she and I then had about how we can “see” and respect ourselves even though someone as vital in our life as a parent may not have been truly aware of us as a child.

Our discussion led to Tara realizing that her mother had not seen “her” (but only the little budding stage star) because the mother had never seen herself as real, but only as a would-be “star. None of this was because she didn’t love Tara. Love had nothing to do with it. It was her mother’s sense of insignificance that was the factor operating here.

This was a time of deep understanding for Tara, a melting of a resentment she had carried around against her mother for years. She realized now that the two of them had both been caught in the same dilemma-that both had felt they were nonentities.

Several Choices (which Tara took home with her to work on) came out of this session, each dealing with a slightly different aspect of the problem and stating her preferred solution for it.

These were worded as follows:

I choose to know and love the real me, even if Mommy couldn’t.

I choose to understand why Mommy could never see me.

I choose to feel close to Mommy because we both had the same problem.

And finally, I choose to allow my real self to be seen.

This was probably the most important choice of all for Tara because she had been terribly afraid to take this chance before. She took home the little blue cards with her choices written on them (I’ll explain the process in a moment) and has used them ever since. The feeling that she could “know my real self” has grown in her as a result of this to a point where she has been largely able to dispense with the facade she had had all her life.She is now an intentionally fine and studied performer on stage (in fact she claims to be an even better one now) but unlike before, she is now able to be a “real” person off stage, one whom she genuinely likes and respects, as do many others. Her choices have strongly reinforced the insights she gained during the EFT process.

A Note on the Different Types of Tapping

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A quick Internet search on acupoint tapping or energy tapping will bring up hundreds of sites. You will also find many variations of tapping and hundreds of books on Amazon. It is not so unusual for a self-help approach to strike a popular chord and generate a great deal of notice and interest. The acceptance of a therapeutic innovation by the clinical and scientific communities, however, requires credible evidence and research.

While many hybrids or variations of EFT can be found, the term Clinical EFT has emerged to refer to the EFT tapping protocols that have been validated by research, along with the knowledge base that has developed from investigations of these procedures in the treatment of various populations and conditions.

The standards for the studies that comprise Clinical EFT are patterned after criteria originally developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Treatments. One of the seven essential criteria is that the method be described in a written manual. Clinical EFT is based on the method defined in The EFT Manual, and most of the published EFT research has been guided by the manual. By defining a therapeutic modality according to a uniform set of procedures, researchers can be assured that conclusions from a series of studies are based on meaningful comparisons. That the techniques delivered in a study match what is prescribed in the manual is called “fidelity of treatment” and is essential for research within an emerging area of clinical practice.

As a researcher and academic, I am often asked to conduct research trials to test the effectiveness of variations of Clinical EFT. I usually decline, and for a very good reason in terms of the emergence of EFT as a field. As with any new approach, a foundation needs to be established. If the academic and general community are to accept the efficacy and mechanisms of an original method, precise or even accurate conclusions can’t be reached if the evidence mixes apples and oranges.

While relatively little research exists for EFT’s variations and hybrids, I look forward to the day when the evidence for Clinical EFT has become so mainstream that we can shift our sights to innovations within this major clinical advance.

Positive Tapping: The Choices Method Part I

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There is a powerful way to use tapping and that is to include the concept of choice into your setup statement.

As you know, the basic EFT Setup statement always begins with the words, “Even though…” and always ends with something like, “I  accept myself.”  This will often be meaningful to the person, but not always.

EFT Master Patricia Carrington, PhD, developed the Choices Method as an alternative to the setup statement. She says, “It was through experimenting with my own clients that the EFT Choices Method was born. In it, the person applying the method identifies the outcome that they would truly like to have for the problem at hand, and then puts this desired outcome into a sentence which commences with the words “I choose…”

The steps of the Choices Method:

  1. Obtain an initial intensity rating for the aspect of the problem you are going to work on. I am angry.
  2. Formulate a Choice that is the opposite of this negative cognition, an antidote to it. I choose to feel completely calm.
  3. Combine the negative cognition with the positive choice to create the Choices statement. Even though I am angry, I choose to feel completely calm.
  4. Tap on the side of the hand point while repeating the Choices statement three times.
  5. Continue the rest of the tapping process. The first EFT Round could address the negative part of the Choices statement as a reminder. Example: I’m angry.
  6. The second EFT Round could use the positive choice. Example: I choose to feel calm.
  7. The third EFT Round could use an alternate round, starting with the negative phrase on the first point and a positive choices phrase on the next point.
  8. Check your SUD rating after each round.

Check out the next blog to read from Patricia Carrington herself and how she applied it for a depression/marriage client.

Stages of Life: Tapping for Teens (Goals)

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Some years ago when I was teaching a group of Year 11 students how to use tapping for things like exam anxiety and fear of failure, one of the students asked about using tapping for goals. So we taught them the EFT technique for goal setting.

All the students wrote down a list of goals they wanted and then a list of excuses or reasons the goals might not come true. One of them volunteered to tap with me as a demonstration. He really wanted to become the School Captain for the final year of school (the following year).

His list of reasons that he might NOT become school captain were:

– No one really knows me as I am quiet
– I haven’t been at the school for the whole time (he came in Year 10)
– I don’t know if I can give a good enough speech at the assembly where potential students vied for the position (for voting)
– I have never really won anything before, why would I win now

We used those exact statements and put them in the formula (Even though…) – and tapped our way through them. The other students tapped along with us. We got to the end and he felt pretty relaxed. I asked what his BELIEF was now that he might become the school captain, and he said 10/10! He didn’t feel like there was any doubt left in him.

Obviously he still had to give the speech at the assembly later that year and then be voted in. I suggested he use tapping leading into that event, in case he was nervous or doubtful.

About 8 months later, and into the following year, I had just about forgotten about that student and his goal. But I ran into a teacher from the school. This triggered my memory and I asked about who was school captain that year.

You’ll never guess who they said (that student above).

And I just laughed.

You can read this story and more in EFT For Teens (Hay House) 

Stages of Life: How EFT Tapping Affect Gene Expression

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EFT has been researched at a physiological level, including its effects on genes. An initial pilot study compared an hour-long EFT session with a placebo session (where subjects thought they were getting a treatment, but it did not have an active component) in four participants. What this small study found was incredible.

After the single EFT session, differential expression in 72 genes associated with the suppression of cancer tumors, protection against ultraviolet radiation, regulation of type 2 diabetes insulin resistance, immunity from opportunistic infections, antiviral activity, synaptic connectivity between neurons, synthesis of both red and white blood cells, enhancement of male fertility, building white matter in the brain, metabolic regulation, neural plasticity, reinforcement of cell membranes, and the reduction of oxidative stress occurred. This was a profound outcome and the first of its kind in this field.

There has since been another study that examined the regulation of six genes associated with inflammation and immunity after EFT treatment. In a study of 16 war veterans with PTSD who received 10 hour-long EFT sessions, interleukins, which are responsible for the regulating our body’s inflammation response, decreased significantly in expression. And “good” genes associated with improved functioning of the immune system were up-regulated (expressed). There was also a significant association between improvement in the veterans’ mental-health symptoms and positive changes in the expression of their genes related to stress hormones.

Now isn’t that a good reason to start tapping today?

You can read more of the research in The Science Behind Tapping.

References:

Maharaj, M. E. “Differential gene expression after Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) treatment: A novel pilot protocol for salivary mRNA assessment.” Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment 8, no.1 (2016): 17–32. doi:10.9769/EPJ.2016.8.1.MM

Church, Dawson et al. “Epigenetic effects of PTSD remediation in veterans using Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques: A randomized controlled pilot study.” American Journal of Health Promotion 32, no. 1 (2018): 112–122. doi:10.1177/0890117116661154.

 

 

Stages of Life: Using EFT Tapping for Exercise!

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New research from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases has linked specific exercises with brain health and cognitive performance. Indeed types of activities called cardiorespiratory exercise may be part of the puzzle that’ll help humans protect their brain health as they age.

But what if you hate exercise? You CAN use EFT Tapping to help!

You do need to work out WHY you hate exercise first but then you CAN tap – we included some of this in our clinical trials (more than 12 years’ worth now) – everyone tapping for weight loss and food cravings also tapped for increasing their desire to exercise.

Here are some setup statements to get you started – see which ones ring true for you – rate them out of 10 for truth

• Even though I loathe exercising, I deeply love and accept myself

• Even though I feel fatigued and too tired to exercise, I choose to know that my energy levels will improve as I get fitter and I choose to be fit and healthy anyway

• Even though exercise feels like punishment, I choose to know that it will help me

• Even though I have no motivation to exercise, I accept myself

• Even though I’d rather eat than jog, I completely love and accept myself

• Even though exercise frightens me because I expect to get hurt or sore, I choose to know that it will help me

• Even though I don’t want to get too sweaty/ hate getting sweaty, I accept this is how I feel

• Even though I’m afraid I’ll look too muscly and big, I choose to know that it’s in my imagination

• Even though I feel people think I look silly exercising, I accept this is how I feel

Reminder Phrases:

• Loathe exercise

• Hate exercise

• Feel too tired

• Feel fatigued

• Choose to be fitter

• Choose to know I’ll improve

• It’s too hard

• Feels like punishment

• No motivation

• No energy

• I feel too tired

• Rather eat

• Hate jogging

• Don’t want to

• Exercise frightens me

• It’s scary

• It might hurt

• Hate getting sweaty

• It feels yucky

• Too sweaty

• Exercise makes you big

• Too muscly

• Too big

Back to that study –

Brain tissue is made up of gray matter, or cell bodies, and filaments, called white matter, that extend from the cells. The volume of gray matter appears to correlate with various skills and cognitive abilities. The researchers found that increases in peak oxygen uptake were strongly associated with increased gray matter volume.

The study involved 2,013 adults from two independent cohorts in northeastern Germany. Participants were examined in phases from 1997 through 2012. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using peak oxygen uptake and other standards while participants used an exercise bike. MRI brain data were also analyzed.

The results suggest cardiorespiratory exercise may contribute to improved brain health and decelerate a decline in gray matter. An editorial by three Mayo Clinic experts that accompanies the Mayo Clinic Proceedings study says the results are “encouraging, intriguing and contribute to the growing literature relating to exercise and brain health.”

Now, who needs to tap?

References: 

Keep exercising: New study finds it’s good for your brain’s gray matter https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-01/mc-eak123019.php 

 

Stages of Life: EFT Tapping and Dyslexia

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There has been a case study done on how EFT can be used for Dyslexia (a learning condition which is evident in reading, comprehension, spelling and writing). Often the condition causes the child emotional distress as well. While this study is a single case study (often useful as the basis for larger trials), it is a starting point to learn what works and what doesn’t.⁠

A London therapist, worked with a woman in her 20s who suffered dyslexia and had sequencing, disorientation and emotional feelings attached to it. They had three sessions and addressed all of these areas with EFT. They started with past memories of teachers who had ridiculed her in class when she was younger. ⁠

The second session focused on two specific incidents involving two teachers at school. One was a maths class where she was not given the marks for correct answers, because she couldn’t explain the method she used to arrive at them. While she received marks for an incorrect answer (based on the method used), when she got the answer right, she got zero marks because she couldn’t explain the method.⁠

By the end of the three EFT sessions, the client was able to read easily and fluently, and understand sentences. The disorientation associated with the client’s dyslexia had also reduced significantly to a point where it was no longer an issue. ⁠

Read More in The Science Behind Tapping – Hay House. 

Reference:  McCallion, F. (2012). Emotional Freedom Techniques for Dyslexia: A Case Study; Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, & Treatment 4(2). doi: 10.9769/EPJ.2012.4.2.FM⁠

Why Saying the Negative During Tapping Doesn’t Affirm the Problem

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Tapping doesn’t affirm or implant a problem; however, on the surface it may look like that. The process does have someone state the truth of what is happening for him or her and acknowledge it. We are actually engaging the amygdala (stress center) and the limbic system (emotions) in the brain and body with this technique.

It is as though we are engaging these negative feelings or sensations just long enough to feel them, then we hit the delete button through the tapping.

It is the tapping process that calms the physiological response from the body. Once this is released, cognitive shifts (or reframes) may surface naturally.

If we tap with a positive affirmation first (attempting to take our mind off our problem), it may only result in a minor shift. It is like spraying air freshener when the garbage is still there. We need to tap on the real problem and reduce the intensity before tapping on anything positive.

The key in EFT is to actually do the tapping when you acknowledge your problem and state it out loud. It is the somatic aspect that changes the response, not just stating your problem. There have been several dismantling studies of EFT done, often by researchers who do not use the technique at all. Basically we now know that the tapping aspect is a key active ingredient in the process working—and just stating your problem with an acceptance element may not result in it changing.

EFT Tapping and Students

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It’s a return to school week here in Australia after a long summer break. 🌞⁠

Fear of failure and emotional difficulties are particularly common in high achieving students. This often results in self-handicapping and defensive pessimism, which leads to failure or lowered academic achievement . We know students who are engaged in the content they are learning have better retention and improved problem solving skills. ⁠

But students often face barriers that prevent active engagement learning such as stress. Stress has the potential to affect memory, concentration, and problem solving abilities that can then lead to decreased student engagement and self-directed learning.⁠

Fortunately we also know that higher levels of self-esteem and resilience are shown to protect against fear of failure and emotional difficulties, and predict improved academic outcomes in both high school and university students. However few studies have investigated low-cost group intervention methods aimed at improving self-esteem and resilience in students. ⁠

It turns out EFT Tapping is very effective for reducing anxiety, stress and other emotional issues and it works on both real and imagined stressors for children and teens. It can significantly increase positive emotions and self-esteem and resilience too, and decrease their negative emotional states. And interestingly, it is often easier to teach them, and they achieve faster results.⁠

You can read about the research in The Science Behind Tapping (Hay House) including all the clinical trials conducted in academic settings.

3 Reasons Tapping is the 4th Wave

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I believe EFT Tapping enjoys 3 features that distinguish it as a 4th wave therapy: It is a true mind-body approach in that it includes direct interventions at the level of the body; it changes brain activity very rapidly; and it has special advantages in quickly and permanently shifting outdated emotional learnings. Let’s look at these features in depth.

  1. A Somatic Intervention. Therapists who are effective in working with people who have been traumatized have long recognized that talk therapies are not enough for healing the damage that is caused by abuse and catastrophe. The title of an influential paper and subsequent book, The Body Keeps the Score, by Dr. Bessel van der Kolk underlines this point. The physiological changes to the body and brain following trauma become “encoded in the viscera” and require treatments that “engage the safety system of the brain before trying to promote new ways of thinking.” Effective therapies for severe trauma must address the body as well as the mind, and being able to do so is a great strength of somatic therapies.  It is not just tapping on the skin that makes EFT a somatic intervention. Tapping initiates a cascading series of events in the brain and body that, as you will see below, impact hormone production, brain waves, blood flow within the brain, and gene expression in ways that enhance emotional health. And tapping has this impact not just for treating trauma but also in addressing everyday anxieties, upsets, and goals.
  2. Rapid Results. A decade-long research program at Harvard Medical School looking at what happens in the body when various acupoints are stimulated found that certain points almost instantly decrease the activation of the stress response in the brain. This research is described in more detail below, but suffice it to say that with elevated stress responses being part of many emotional disorders, the capacity to rapidly reduce them is a cornerstone in the speed and effectiveness of EFT. You will also see that EFT seems to require fewer sessions than more conventional therapies for equivalent outcomes.
  3. Enhanced Information Processing. David Feinstein’s paper “How Energy Psychology Changes Deep Emotional Learnings” builds on the way the speed with which tapping (a central feature of “energy psychology”) sends deactivating signals to the brain. This rapid response combines with the brain’s capacity to reprogram itself through a process called “memory reconsolidation.” The outcome is that unhealthy responses to triggers, such as to the tone of your boss’s voice, can be rapidly and permanently eliminated. Because much of the human experience involves responding to what life presents, being able to make shifts that promote healthier emotional responses and behaviors helps in overcoming a broad spectrum of emotional problems and also helps you to live a more successful and fulfilling life.

These three qualities come together to make EFT unusually rapid and effective in comparison with first-, second-, and third-wave therapies.

To read more, head over to The Science Behind Tapping.

References:

Feinstein, David. “How energy psychology changes deep emotional learnings.” The Neuropsychotherapist 10 (January 2015): 1–11.

Access Chapter 4 from The Science Behind Tapping here free

EFT researcher and author Peta Stapleton, Ph.D., brings together the history and cutting-edge research of tapping. She also shows how tapping can be used for a whole host of ailments, including anxiety, weight issues, depression, trauma, and more. Dr. Stapleton’s own groundbreaking study involving food cravings in overweight adults helped establish EFT as an effective, valid form of therapy.

Access Chapter 4 below - EFT Tapping for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Thank you! Here is your free chapter.